The aim of this report is threefold. Its first section provides an overall sketch of the situation across Europe and the underlying mechanisms for the differences in European countries. The second section focuses on the heterogeneities within each country. It examines the disparities among students in order to understand which of those correlate with larger learning deficits or worsening mental health. Section 3, considers the findings of the first two sections in order to discuss five policy recommendations for the short and long run.
De Witte, K. and François, M. (2023). ‘Covid-19 learning deficits in Europe: analysis and practical recommendations’, EENEE Analytical report. doi: 10.2766/469119.